The economist of today is indebted to the historian of the part history. I.e. in this sense that they supplied material of the formulation of economics conclusion.

  • The economist of today indebted to the historian of the part history i.e. the sense that they supplied material of the formulation of economics conclusion.
  • Economists also can verify the correction of the old theory by comparing facts of the past and present.
  • Economists like Malthus used history methods to explain his theory of production.
  • No historian can have a rough knowledge of history of a country if he does not study its economic condition from this sense. Therefore economics without history has no root and without economics it has no fruits.


  • Psychology is that science of mind that it does with mental phenomena. Economics is the study of certain types of human behavior. Since behavior is conditioned by the mind, economics is related to psychology.
  • Wants, efforts and satisfactions which force the subject matter of economics are also mental phenomena e.g. The law of demand and supply are based on human behavior /psychology.

Ethics is a science proper or right conductor. It prescribes the moral code of behavior and it is concerned with what might be?

The ethical standard of the people of a country is influenced by some extended economic condition, for example; the decision on which taxes to impose and which scheme to spend government money deceive their inspiration from morals of the society.

Economic as system that institutional arrangement.


Economic system is that an institutional arranged where by human and natural resources of an economy cooperate with each other to produce goods and service.


Is a set of institution which a society decides what, how and for whom to produce. It is a framework theory which a society allocates scarce resources among competition uses or it is an allocate mechanism of the society.


  1. To distribute output among the members of the societies and it must answer the question of who gets from the production of output.
  2. Allocation of the resources i.e. every system is responsible for the allocation of resources for production of goods and services.
  3. To provide maintenance and expansion of capital goods. Every system must expand capital goods.
  4. To adjust production and consumption i.e. to make sure production does not exceed consumption and vice verse.
  5. To make social choice i.e. to decide on behalf of the government what kind of goods and services to produce.


There are three main types of economics system;-

  1. Socialist economic system.
  2. Capitalist economic system.
  3. Mixed economic system.



Command or socialist economic system is a type of economic system in which all major means of production are owned by the state.


  1. Collective ownership.

All major means of production such as factories, banks, schools hospital, and farms e.t.c are owned by state.

  1. All economic decisions are made by the state.

Economic decisions about what to produce, how to produce and to whom to produce are made by the country planning authority.

  1. Exploitation is minimized and classes are not in extent.

Profit is shared equally among the members and classes do not exist because wealth in the socialist economy is owned equally by all members.

  1. Lack of freedom.

In command economy producers are not free to make decisions on the allocation of scarce resources. What is to be produced is determined by the state consumers; likewise producers are not free on what goods and services to produce to the consumers.

  1. There is equality among the members in a command economy. Majority of people have access to the national output as the state ensures equality in the distribution of wealth.
  2. Low quantity and quality of outputs due to lack of competition.
  3. Production is mainly gearing at maximizing utility of the society.


  1. It promotes welfare of the majority.
  2. Under this system the government ensures achievement of minimum standard of living for the members of the society by using different approaches like;- provision of the free social subsidies etc.
    1. Wastage of resources is minimized.

    Proper planning on the allocation of resources ensures efficiency and full utilization of the resources.

    1. Greater ability to tackle externalizes i.e. environmental pollution should be tackled into account when deciding up on the patterns of production. Command economy can easily deal with harmful effects of production activities.
    2. There is no exploitation between people hence there is harmonious relationship between them.
    3. The system is able to minimize inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth unlike the market economy.
    4. Economic and social crises can be avoided. Since a command economy is planned, the government is able to control various macro-economics variables like money supply, investment, consumption, expenditure, tax etc.

    This economic crisis such as inflation, recession, depression, unemployment, e.t.c can be avoided.


    1. Lack of freedom of choice.

    Under this system, freedom by producers and consumers over what to consume and produce are very limited.

    1. Discourage individual efforts or ineffectiveness to work due to lack of private gains.

    3.Inefficiency in production the system is characterized in efficiency due to lack of competition low technology.bureaucratic decisions, corruption, poor planning, too much protectionism to domestic industries

           4. Information cost of gathering information about what, how, for whom to produce is likely to be very high as it requires experts, planners, administrators and engineers etc.

    5. Difficult in estimating demand without price sign us to estimate existing and future pattern of demand for goods and services becomes difficult.

    NB; socialism is still one of the economic system that today is practiced in Cuba, North Korea and China.

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The economist of today is indebted to the historian of the part history. I.e. in this sense that they supplied material of the formulation of economics conclusion. ECONOMICS AND HISTORY The economist of today indebted to the historian of the part history i.e. the sense that they supplied material...