SPECIALIZATION AND DIVISION OF LABOUR
DIVISION OF LABOUR.
Is the process of splitting one particular job into several tasks, trade or processes.
Is the process of assigning one task or trade or process to one particular worker or a group of workers and the whole job accomplished with the help of several workers.
FORMS / NATURE OF SPECIALIZATION
- Specialization by gender: – e.g. during the Old Stone Age, man was hunting and women were gathering.
- Specialization by process or complex specialization.e.g In car assembling manufacturing etc.
- Regional / territorial specialization. Different parts of the country produce different crops depending on the climatic conditions of a place.e.g. in Tanzania;-
- Mwanza – cotton
- Mbeya – rice
- Tanga – fruits
- Occupational specialization such as teachers, doctors, lawyers etc.
- Specialization by product.
ADVANTAGES OF SPECIALIZATION AND DIVISION OF LABOUR
- It increases output.
- It improves the skills of the workers.
- The workers become more efficient.
- It helps to increase employment opportunities. The jobs create many tasks to be performed by several workers.
- Cost per unit is reduced as the result of large scale production.
- It leads to less fatigue to the workers. I.e. less tiredness due to repeating the same job now and then.
- It leads to employment to a specialist. One will go to the real field for which she/he is competent.
- It enables the employment of the facilities such as machines.
- It is easy to train a worker in one field rather than several fields of specialization.
- Time saving since it does not involve movements.
DISADVANTAGES OF SPECIALIZATION
- It can lead to unemployment, due to the result of changes in demand for labour caused by changes in demand for goods or changes in technology.
- Less of craftsmanship being a result of increased use of the machines. The workers’ skills are reduced due to the use of machines.
- It results into high cost of production as a result of increased number of workers who have to be paid.
- Doing the same thing now and then leads to one getting bored.
- Dulls the workers. The thinking capacity of the workers is reduced i.e. they are getting to know very few things but lack to know many others.
- Lack of responsibilities, in case anything happens to be wrong there is no possibility of locating the sources of the fault.
LIMITATION OF SPECIALIZATION
- Size of the firm.
For specialization to be economically feasible the size of the firm must be large enough to keep the specialized labour, machines or plants fully employed.
- The size or extent of the market.
The size of market also presents the division of labour to take place beyond a certain unit. It shows the degree in terms of the area, length, range or size of the markets for given products or goods and services.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE EXTENT OF THE MARKET
-Lack of improved mass of communication.
- Change in the population size of a given area either through natural disasters or by net migration will affect the extent of the market.
- Inadequate monetary.
- Nature of the some industries. Some industries by their nature have been less scope per division of labour ma be forced to be used for different tasks, otherwise the workers are underutilized.
- Willingness and ability of a labour to work in different places and climate.
- Availability of training facilities and employment security.
- Nature of demand of some products. I.e. if the production are for individual demand production can take place on small scale hence limited division of labour